آموزش زبان انگلیسی برای دوره ی اول متوسطه

Iranian Elites


As a cradle of eastern civilization, Iran, or the former Persia, and the Iranian people have made numerous contributions towards the betterment of mankind, and up to this date.

It would be fair to say that this website will not be able to portray, even a glimpse of what Iranian elites have offered throughout the history. Here, we have tried to remember, and pay tribute to those Iranians who have marked the history of mankind with their great achievements. In this part, and in order to provide readers with useful materials and to enhance the public knowledge about Iranian elites, we have attempted to narrate a short account of each and every one of them in this weblog.


"Professor Mahmood Hesabi was born in Tehran in 1903 (1281, A.H. Solar). His parents were from Tafresh. At the age of four his family moved to Syria and at the age of seven he moved to Beirut and while tolerating difficult situations and poverty he started his education at elementary school far from the home land in a French Priests' School. At the same time, his mother, Gohar Shad Hesabi, who was dedicated, religious and knowledgeable woman, started teaching him Persian Literature and religious education

Hesabi memorized Quran and he had very strong belief in it. He also memorized Hafez's Diwan and had completed proficiency in Saadi's Bustan and Golestan, Ferdowsi's Shahname, Molavi's (Rumi's) Masnavi and Ghaem Magham's Monshaat.

The beginning of his guidance school coincided with the start of the World War I when the French schools of Beirut were closed. After two years of studying at home he prosecuted his studies at American University of Beirut and obtained his BA in Literature at the age of 17, and at the age of 19 he got his BA in Biology. Then he obtained a degree in engineering and earned money as a draftsman and a civil engineer. Hesabi also studied Medicine, Mathematics and Astrology.

In order to appreciate Hesabi, the civil engineering company that he was working there dispatched him to France for prosecution of studies. He was admitted to the "Ecole Superieure d'Electricite" in 1924 and graduated in 1925. Concurrent with studying mineralogy he was hired by the French Electric Railway Co. and after graduation in this field he started his work in Iron mines of north of France and Coal mines of the state of "Sar".

Since he had a scientific mind and spirit he continued his studies and research in Physics at Sorbonne University. He obtained his PhD IN Physics with an excellent degree at the age of 25. The title of his dissertation was "Sensitivity of Photo Electric Cells".

At that time when 15 thousand people were volunteers to attend Einstein's class he had the chance to be one of the 5 chosen ones. He had a meeting with Einstein at Princeton in American and one year later he presented a theory called "Infinitely Extended Particles". By the help and guide of Einstein and his own research in Chicago University he was able to defend his theory and explain it to other great scientists such as Born, Mezmi and Schrodinger and he was awarded the medal of the "Commandeur De La Legion D'honneure", France's greatest scientific medal. When he returned to Princeton, Einstein elected him as a substitute of himself at this university and it was a very big honor that he received.

The following are some of his accomplishments in scientific fields:

Founding modern sciences, founding "Teachers' College" (Dar-ul Moallemin), construction of the first radio-set in Iran, founding higher college for teachers and teaching Physics and Mechanics there, construction of the first weather-station, installation and operation of the first radiology center (for his brother Dr. Mohammad Hesabi), establishing Persian Language Academy, Topography, founding Tehran-Shemshak Railway, founding Tehran University and acting as the dean and the instructor of the university, founding applied optic and lens-making center at Tehran University, establishing the first modern observatory in Iran, establishing nomad school in the country, establishing Geophysics Society of Iran, founding the atomic research Center and Atomic Reactor of Tehran University, founding modern center for satellite studies in Shiraz, founding Physics Society of Iran and etc.

While serving the country during this period he continued his scientific cooperation such as membership of Oslo Mathematics Congress in Norway, membership of Princeton scientific conference, membership of research team at Institute of Nuclear Research of Chicago, membership of New York Science Academy, membership of Geneva Atomic Conference, membership of Physics Society of Europe and America, etc.

He spoke five living languages Persian, French, English, German and Arabic and he also knew Sanskrit, Latin, Greek, Pahlavi, Avestan, Turkish and Italian which he used for his etymological studies.

He was chosen as the Man of Science if the World in 1989. On 3rd of September, 1992 (12th of Shahrivar 1371, A.H. Solar) at 7:30 am (still a university professor at Tehran University) he passed away in hospital of Geneva University after a period of illness."/ Source:  Iran Air In flight Magazine, No. 36, Oct- Nov, 2005.


"Amir Kabir, also known as Mirza Taghi Khan Amir-Nezam, was the chancellor of Persia under Nasereddin Shah. He was born in Hazaveh, a province of Arak.

His father, Karbalaee Ghorban, was a cook for Gha'em-Magham Farahani, a previous chancellor, which made Mirza Taghi Khan learn many skills of the court.

Amir Kabir was sent to the Ottoman Empire to represent Persia in negotiations for an end to a hundred years of war between the two empires. He also helped Nesereddin Shah to receive the throne, so the shah made him his chancellor and gave his sister to him in marriage.

Government expenditure was slashed, and a distinction was made between the privy and public purses. The instruments of central administration were overhauled, and Amir Kabir assumed responsibility for all areas of the bureaucracy. Additionally, Amir Kabir curtailed foreign interference in Iran's domestic affairs.

Amir Kabir started many reformistic movements in Persia. He founded Darolfonoon, the first European-style college in Persia (it is now part of Tehran University). He also supported the foundation of the first Persian newspaper and lapsed the huge salaries that members of the royal family were receiving from the national treasury, which caused the royals, led by the shah's mother, to invent allegations against him. These people convinced the shah to dismiss Amir Kabir and send him into internal exile in Kashan.

It is said that the Russian embassy offered him a refuge in Russia, which Amir Kabir declined. Later, when the shah was drunk, the shah's mother and her aids asked him for an order to execute Amir Kabir, and executed the order very quickly in Kashan's Fin Bath, before the shah could rescind the order.

The Amirkabir University of Technology in Tehran today is named after him in his honor."/ Source: Wikipedia


Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh was born on May 19, 1882.  His father "Hedayat Ashtiani" was the Finance Minister of King Naser al-Din Qajar, and his mother was a granddaughter of the Crown Prince Abbas Mirza. During his childhood, Mossadegh lost his father (1892), and it was at that time that he became the government's tax collecting representative in the province of Khorasan, by the King's decree. After the Constitutional Revolution of 1906, Mossadegh was elected from Isfehan to the first Parliament, but since he was under the age of 30, he refused his position as a Parliament member.

When Mohammad Ali Shah bombarded the first Parliament, and liberals were either executed or imprisoned, Mossadegh spent a while in concealment, and in 1909 he started his trip to France through Russia, and he studied at the Political Science Institute of Paris for two years.  Because of his illness, Mossadegh was forced to return to Iran, but after 5 months he traveled to Switzerland where he continued his education at the law school of Neuchatel.  Mossadegh obtained his law doctorate and his attorney ship permit in 1913.

In 1914 he returned to Iran and began his career at the Political Science Institute of Tehran, as a professor.  During this time Mossadegh compiled two books, the "Civil Legal Procedure," and the "Capitulation."  In 1917, Mossadegh became  the deputy Finance minister and took many steps against corruption inside the ministry.

When the cabinet of Vosough al-Doleh signed the treacherous agreement of 1919 with the British government, Mossadegh strongly criticized the agreement and left the country for Europe. There he informed the western societies about this agreement which would have made Iran a British colony.  By signing the agreement, Vosough received 131,000 British Pounds to divide among himself and his Foreign and Finance ministers.

A few months later, Vosough's cabinet collapsed because of the public pressure, and Moshir al-Doleh became Prime Minister.  The new Premier invited Dr. Mossadegh to join him as his minister of Justice.

In his return to Iran from the Persian Gulf, due to the request of the people of Shiraz, he accepted the governor ship of the Fars province, until the British backed coup d'etat of 1921, and took effective steps towards the security of the people.

When the British backed coup of Seyed Zia and Reza Khan took place in 1921, Mossadegh was one of the few Iranian politicians who asked the legitimacy of the coup government, and resigned his post as the governor of Fars.  After his abdication, in his way to Tehran, the Bakhtiari tribe invited Mossadegh to be their guest, and he lived there until the Zia government collapsed after 100 days. After Zia government's fall, Ghavam al-Saltaneh became the new Premier and Dr. Mossadegh was selected as the Finance minister with full authority.

With the fall of Ghavam's government, and when Moshir became the premier once again, Mossadegh was asked to become the governor of the Azerbaijan province, and accepted the post from 1921 to 1922, upon the condition of having authority over the province's armed forces.  But at the end because of the provincial army commander's disobedience, who got his orders from Reza Khan (the War Minister), Mossadegh resigned and returned to Tehran.

In May 1923, Mossadegh became the Foreign Minister of Moshir's cabinet, and strongly opposed  the British government's claim, which requested 2 million Pounds from Iran, for the creation of the Iranian southern police (which protected Britain's interests).  After Moshir's abdication, Reza Khan (Commander of the Armed Forces), reached the post of Premiership.

Dr. Mossadegh was elected to the Parliament from Tehran, and it was during this period that the Qajar dynasty was overthrown and Reza khan declared himself the King of Iran.  Mossadegh strongly criticized the Kingship of Reza khan, and when the sixth Majlis ended, and Reza Khan became the absolute dictator of Iran, Mossadegh was forced to stay at home for many years.  During the last years of Reza Shah's reign, when most of the political figures were either deceased or had surrendered to the Pahlavi regime, Mossadegh was arrested and exiled for several months, but finally he was sent back to his Ahmad Abad country estate under house arrest.  After the occupation of Iran by the British and Russian armies in 1941, Reza Shah was forced to abdicate and  exiled to South Africa until his death, and Mossadegh returned to Tehran.

In the elections of the 14th Majlis (Parliament), Dr. Mossadegh was elected as the first representative from the Capital, and was surprisingly honored by the nation.  During the 15th Majlis elections, because of the interference of Mohammad Reza Shah, and Premier Ghavam, Mossadegh didn't get the chance to enter the Parliament, so the British could confirm the 1933 oil agreement that was signed by the ex-Shah, with the new cabinet, and plunder the Iranian oil for another 60 years.  Fortunately because of the public pressure, the wish of the British government didn't come true, and the life of the 15th Majlis ended.  But the Shah, by the request of the British, formed a Constituent Assembly, and extended his powers as a constitutional monarch.  It was also during this period that Dr. Mossadegh and his companions formed the Jebhe Melli (National Front) of Iran, which played a great role in nationalizing the Iranian oil industry.

Despite all the interference  and frauds of the Shah and the Royal Court during the 16th Majlis elections, the fake ballot boxes were announced expired, and the Royal Court minister was assassinated.  In the second round of the elections, Mossadegh and a group of his companions were elected, and it was this Parliament that approved the nationalization of the Iranian oil industry, by the leadership of Dr. Mossadegh.  A while later the Majlis elected Mossadegh as the new Prime Minister.

When Mossadegh became Premier in 1951, the first thing he did after introducing his cabinet, was the enforcement of the Oil Nationalization Bill. Following the British law suit against Iran and propounding it at the United Nations Security Council, Dr. Mossadegh made a trip to New York in order to defend the rights of Iran.  Then he made a trip to the Netherlands and defended Iran at the Hague Court, and Iran was voted not guilty for nationalizing its oil.  In his return to Iran, Mossadegh also visited Egypt and was magnificently welcomed by its people.

The 17th Majlis elections ended in violence because of the army and Royal Courts interference, and after 80 deputies were elected, Mossadegh had to announce the conclusion of the elections. In order to avoid the army's interference, Mossadegh asked the Shah to convey the War Ministry to his cabinet, but the Shah refused and Mossadegh resigned in 1952. The next day, Majlis elected Ghavam as the new premier and he announced his Premiership by a harsh statement.

The people of Iran who were angered by Mossadegh's dismissal, revolted in favor of him and Ayatollah Kashani (who was a close ally of Mossadegh at that time), and against the new government and the Shah.  After 4 days of bloody revolt, the people defeated the Ghavam's government and the shah's army, and once again Mossadegh became Prime Minister. By controlling the Defense Ministry (previous War Ministry), Mossadegh succeeded in cleaning the army from corrupted officers, and this act angered the Royal Court.

In March of 1953, the Royal Court with the help of a group of clergies, expelled army officers, and ruffians, decided to perform a conspiracy plan against Dr. Mossadegh.  The plan was that on the first day of March, the Shah would leave the capital for Europe and pretend that Mossadegh had forced him to leave the country.  On the other hand the ruffians and expelled army officers would gather in front of the Royal Palace to avoid the Shah's departure.  At the same time when Mossadegh comes out of the Royal Palace, they would attack and murder him. But since Mossadegh suspected the conspiracy at the last moment, he escaped the scene.

General Afshar-Toos, the loyal police chief of Mossadegh's government, was brutally murdered by the Royal Court's agents and the expelled officers.

Because of the continues disputes between the Parliament and the cabinet, and following the Majlis member's abdications, Mossadegh declared a national referendum to let the people choose between dissolvement of the Parliament, or cabinet's abdication.  In this referendum (which was criticized by many figures, because of the separation of the Yes and No ballot boxes, and not being held at a same time in Tehran and other cities), the majority of the votes were for dissolvement of the Majlis, and it was dissolved in August of 1953.

On August 16, 1953, with accordance to an American-British designed plan, the Shah issued  Dr. Mossadegh's dismissal, and the chief of the Royal Guards carried the formal notice to Mossadegh's house (which was also his Prime Ministry office) and was ordered to occupy the house by the Royal troops.  But when the troops reached the Mossadegh's house, Mossadegh's guards immediately arrested the Royal Guard's chief and his troops.  The coup was publicized and the Shah escaped the country for Italy.

On 17th and 18th of August 1953, people poured to the streets in support of Mossadegh and the status of Mohammad Reza and Reza Shah were pulled down all over the country.

On August 19, 1953, the intelligence services of U.S.A. and Britain (CIA - MI6), enforced a more precise and expensive coup d'etat plan, and this time succeeded in overthrowing Mossadegh's government.  On this day, after  bribing some of the grand Ayatollahs, army officers, ruffians, and the prostitutes, the coup makers pulled large mobs into the streets to demonstrate against the national government of Dr. Mossadegh.  Because of the police chief treachery, the coup makers reached the house of the Prime Minister and after several hours of bombarding the house and bloody battle with the small group of Mossadegh's loyal guards, they entered the house and after plundering it, they burned the house.  Mossadegh and his companions used a ladder and took refugee inside the neighbor's house.  Some of Mossadegh's previous companions were among the coup makers.

On the next day, Dr. Mossadegh and his loyal companions surrendered themselves to the coup Prime Minister, General Zahedi.  A few days latter, the Shah returned to Iran from Italy, and began his 25 years of despotic reign.

During the military trial of Dr. Mossadegh, he publicized the secrets of the two coups against his government.  In conclusion Mossadegh was given  three years of prison, and after being imprisoned for 3 years, Mossadegh, now 74, was moved to his country house in Ahmad Abad, and lived there under house arrest until he died./ Source: www.jebhemelli.org


“Dr. Ali Shariati was born in Mazinan, a suburb of Mashhad, Iran. He completed his elementary and high school in Mashhad. In his years at the Teacher's Training College, he came into contact with youth who were from the lower economic strata of the society and tasted the poverty and hardship that existed.

At the age of eighteen, he started as a teacher and ever since had been a student as well as a teacher. After graduating from college in 1960,
on a scholarship he pursued graduate studies in France. Dr. Shariati, an honor student, received his doctorate in sociology in 1964
from Sorbonne University.

When he returned to Iran he was arrested at the border and imprisoned on the pretext that he had participated in political activities while studying in France. Released in 1965, he began teaching again at Mashhad University. As a Muslim sociologist, he sought to explain the problems of Muslim societies in the light of Islamic principles-explaining them and discussing them with his students. Very soon he gained popularity with the students and different social classes in Iran. For this reason, the regime felt obliged to discontinue his courses at the university. Then he was transferred to Teheran. There, Dr. Shariati continued his very active and brilliant career. His lectures at Houssein-e-Ershad Religious Institute attracted not only six thousand students who registered in his summer classes, but also many thousands of people from different backgrounds who were fascinated by his teachings.

The first edition of his book ran over sixty thousand copies which were quickly sold-out, despite the obstructive interference by the authorities in Iran. Faced with the outstanding success of Dr. Shariati's courses, the Iranian police surrounded Houssein-e-Ershad Institute, arrested many of his followers and thereby put an end to his activities. For the second time, he underwent an eighteen month prison term under extremely harsh conditions. Popular pressure and international protests obliged the Iranian regime to release Dr. Shariati on March 20, 1975. However, he remained under close surveillance by the security agents of Iran. This was no freedom at all since he could neither publish his thoughts nor contact his students. Under such stifling conditions according to the teachings of the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet Mohammed (PBUH), he realized that he should migrate out of the country. Successful in his attempt, he went to England but was martyred three weeks later on June 19, 1977 by the ubiquitous SAVAK.

Dr. Shariati studied and experienced many philosophical, theological and social schools of thought with an Islamic view. One could say that he was a Muslim Muhajir who rose from the depth of the ocean of eastern mysticism, ascended to the heights of the formidable mountains of western social sciences, yet was not overwhelmed, and he returned to our midst with all the jewels of this fantastic voyage.

He was neither a reactionary fanatic who opposed anything that was new without any knowledge nor was he of the so-called westernized intellectuals who imitated the west without independent judgment. Knowledgeable about the conditions and forces of his time, he began his Islamic revival with enlightenment of the masses, particularly the youth. He believed that if these elements of the society had true faith, they would totally dedicate themselves and become active and Mujahid elements who would give every thing including their lives-for their ideals.

Dr. Shariati constantly fought to create humanitarian values in the young generation, a generation whose values have been defaced with the help of the most scientific and technical methods. He vigorously tried to re-introduce the Quran and Islamic history to the youth so that they may find their true selves in all their human dimensions and fight all the decadent societal forces.

Dr. Shariati wrote many books. In all his writings, he tried to present a clear and genuine picture of Islam. He strongly believed that if the intellectual and new generation realized the truth of this faith, attempts toward social change would be successful.”/Source: http://www.shariati.com  

The following are some of Dr. Shariat’s books:

Reflections of Humanity, Selection and/or Election, Norouz, Declaration of Iranian's Livelihood, Eternity, Expectations from the Muslim Woman, Horr (Battle of Karbala), Abu-Dahr, Islamology, Red Shi`ism vs. Black Shi`ism, One in front of it, Zeros till Eternity, Jihad and Shahadat, Reflections of a Concerned Muslim on the Plight of Oppressed People, A Message to the Enlightened Thinkers, Art Awaiting the Savior, Fatemeh is Fatemeh, The Philosophy of Supplication.


Persian literature has made splendid contributions to the world literature. Shahnameh (The Epic of Kings) composed in the 10th century by Ferdowsi is the Crown Jewel of the Persian literature and is cherished by all Iranians (including non-Persian ethnic groups) as well as Persian speaking societies of Afghanistan, Central Asia, and  Tajikestan. The following is just a short account of the life of Ferdowsi.

Ferdowsi Toosi (935-1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. Among the national heroes and the literately greats of all time, Ferdowsi has a very special place in Persian literature. His life-long Endeavour, dedication and personal sacrifices to preserve the national identity, language and heritage of his homeland put him in great hardship in his lifetime but won him fame and honor for one of the great literally masterpieces of all time.

Ferdowsi was born in the Iranian province of Khorasan in a village near Toos, in 935. His great epic the Shahnameh ("The Epic of Kings"), to which he devoted most of his adult life, was originally composed for eventual presentation to the Samanid princes of Khorasan, who were the main force behind the revival of Iranian cultural traditions after the Arab conquest of the seventh century.

During Ferdowsi's lifetime this dynasty was conquered by the Ghaznavid Empire, and there are various stories in medieval texts describing the lack of interest shown by the new ruler of Khorasan, Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi, in Ferdowsi and his lifework. Ferdowsi is said to have died around 1020 in poverty and embittered by royal neglect, though fully confident of his work's ultimate success and fame.

His masterwork, the Shahnameh is considered the Iranian national epic by many. The Shahnameh or the "Book of Kings," consists of the translation of an even older Pahlavi (Middle Persian) work. It has been a work of exceptional popularity among the Persians for over 1.000 years now.

Undoubtedly, Ferdowsi is one of the undisputed giants of Persian literature. After Ferdowsi's Shahnameh a number of other works similar in nature surfaced over the centuries within the cultural sphere of the Persian language. 


“Among the brilliant contributors to the sciences of medicine, pharmacy, and chemistry during the Iranian era was one genius who seems to stand for his time- the Persian, Razi, (about 865-925 A.D), called Rhazes by the western world.

He was born in the year 865 A.D in the Persian city of Ray, near present-day Tehran, and died in the same town about 925 A.D. Before learning medicine, he studied philosophy, alchemy, and music. He served as physician at the Samanid court in present Central Asia and headed hospitals in Ray and Baghdad.

 Razi wrote on many different subjects. His general medical textbook, Kitabol-Mansoori fel-tebb ("The Book of Medicine for Mansoor") was written for the Samanid ruler of Ray, Aboo Saleh al-Mansoor. His voluminous working files of readings and personal observations were assembled posthumously by his students and circulated under the name Kitabol-Hawi fel-tebb ("The Comprehensive Book on Medicine"). Over 1000 of his case histories are also preserved today, and they provide an important insight into the working life of the greatest medieval clinician.

His Comprehensive Book on Medicine, the Hawi, was translated into Latin in 1279 A.D under the title Continens by Faraj ben Salim, a physician of Sicilian-Jewish origin employed by Charles of Anjou to translate medical works. Even more influential in Europe was Razi's Book of Medicine Dedicated to Mansoor, a short general textbook on medicine in ten chapters which he had dedicated in 903 A.D to the Samanid prince Aboo Saleh al-Mansoor, governor of Ray. The treatise was translated into Latin in Toledo by Gerard of Cremona  and was known as Liber ad Almansoris. It became one of the most widely read medieval medical manuals in Europe, and the ninth chapter, on therapeutics, frequently circulated by itself under the title Liber nonus ad Almansorem. In the Renaissance many editions of it were printed with commentaries by the prominent physicians of the day, such as Andreas Vesalius.

Razi's smaller medical tracts were treatises on colic, on stones in the kidney and bladder, on curing diseases in one hour (such as headache, toothache, hemorrhoids, and dysentery in small children), on diseases of children, on diabetes, on food for the sick, on maladies of the joints, on medicine for one who is unattended by a physician, on medical aphorisms, and on the fact that some mild diseases are more difficult to diagnose and treat than the serious ones. He also composed a book on the reason why the heads of people swell at the time of the roses and produce catarrh, in which he was apparently the first to relate hay fever - to the scent of roses.”


 " Abo Ali Hossein Ebne Abdullah Ben Ali Sinna entitled as Shaykh-o-Rayis in the East and well known in the west by the name of Avicenna was born in a place called Afsharneh near the city of Bokhara in 980 A.D. But resided in the city of Balkh. He was five years old when his father took him to the city of Bokhara to study Holy Quran where his extraordinary memory became apparent and he memorized the Holy book very quickly. Then he studied literary and oratory disciplines and later learned Algebra, Mathematics and Geometry under the guidance of a master called Mahmood. Afterwards, he became the pupil of Abol-Hassan Koushyar and learned every thing that he knew about Astrology in less than a year. Therefore, he turned his attention toward Theology and Philosophy.

Abo Sahl who was an expert physician himself, persuaded Avicenna to study medicine and he became a general physician at the age of 16. His multi- dimensional studies included Quranic disciplines, Law, Logic, Theology, Mathematics, Astrology and Medicine. He did not reach the age of 60, but his literary works influenced Europe for many years. Some of his books are regarded prominent in these fields. Although Avicenna had many entanglements and worries like captivity, he was able to write 476 books and articles in the above mentioned sciences, which 246 of these books and articles are still available and are kept in various libraries throughout the world. His medical books written in 8 volumes have had immense effect on the development of medicine in the world, particularly in Europe.

His first medical book was written in the context of Honain's medical practices and it is available only in form of handwriting. Then he wrote a book about colic, which was his specialty and later he completed the books of Ghanoon (Canon) and the limits of medicine. His article about cardiac medicine and drugs is regarded as one of his prominent literary works after his books of Ghanoon (canon) and Shafaa (Remedy). His other book called Al-Mabdah contains an especial chapter about psychology. The books written by Razi and Avicenna were the only medical books taught in European medical colleges from 12th to 17th centuries and the book of Canon was considered as a reference book by the researchers throughout the world even in late 18th century." Source: Drs. S Taavoni, and S. J. Mortazavie: Tehran University of Medical Science.



Says Darius, the king: This is what I have done in one year under the protection of the god Ahooramazda. After becoming king, I have fought nineteen battles in one year, and under the protection of Ahooramazda I have won them . I have captured nine kings: The Magian named Gaumata, who lied saying; "I am Bardiya, son of Cyrus, king of Persia", and who caused the lands of Persia and Media to rebel; an Elamite called Atrina, who lied saying; " I am the king of Elam, and who caused Elam to rebel; a Babylonian called Nidintu-Bel, who lied saying " I am Nebuchadnezzar, son of Nabonidus, the king of Babylon", and who caused Babylonian to rebel; a Persian called Martiya, who lied saying; "I am Immaniesh the king of Elam", who caused the Elamites to rebel; a Mede called Parmarish who lied saying; "I am Hashatritu, descendant of Cyaxares', and who caused Median to rebel; a Sagartian called Shitirantahmu, who lied saying; "I am the king of the Sagartians, descendant of Cyaxares", and who cased Sagartians to rebel; a Margian called Parada, who lied saying; "I am the king of Margia", and caused Margia to rebel; a Persian called Umizdatu, who lied saying; "I am the son of Cyrus, king of Persia", and who caused Persia to rebel;

The king was essential for economic growth throughout the empire, and these were good times for many regions as well. He sustained and extended irrigation systems, thereby making him owner of water, for which all users were obliged to pay a tax.

Several kings are known to have tried to promote trade with distant regions. Darius, for instance, dug a canal from Nile to the Red Sea. Trade in this period must have flourished, as the world from the Nile to the Indus was under one political regime.

Because Persian controlled the Phoenician herber cities, it had access to resources from the western Mediterranean. Moreover, the coastal areas of the empire from western Anatoli to Egypt were connected by sea trade. Ships from India and Levant imported oil, wine, metals, wood, wool, and other products into Egypt, for instance, and exported natron, a chemical needed for textile production, and other Egyptian goods in return.

The Persian state levied a tax on these shipments which was to be paid in gold and silver coins. Clearly, overseas trade crossed political boundaries, Greek merchants were active in Egypt under Persian rule, for instance, and Syro- Palestinian trades traveled all over the Mediterranean in the eastern territories. Sea Trade must also have existed across the Arabian and Indian Seas.   


Cyrus The Great, known in Persian language as "Kooroush" is the founder of the Persian empire. There are different accounts about his birthplace, but the strongest opinion indicates that he was born in Pars region, presently located in southern part of Iran.

Cyrus united the Medes and the Persians and founded the great empire. His new kingdom consisted of elites of Medes and Persians. After the conquest of Asia minor was completed, Cyrus led his armies to the eastern frontiers. Following this move, he conquered Drangiana, Arachosia, Margiana and Bactria. After crossing the Oxus, he reached the Jaxartes, where he ordered the construction of fortified towns with the object of defending the farthest frontier of his empire against nomadic tribes of Central Asia.

Cyrus has been seen as a liberator rather a conqueror.  Cyrus never forced the conquered nation into a single mould, and instead used his wisdom to leave the institution of each kingdom which he attached to his empire, intact. When he conquered Babylon, he allowed more than 40,000 Jews to return to Palestine.

Cyrus was upright, a great leader, generous and benevolent. The Hellenes, whom he conquered regarded hi as "Law Giver", and the Jews as "The Messiah of the Lord". Cyrus is known to be the first writer of Charter of the Right of Nations. The Charter inscribed on a clay cylinder and in cuneiform, is currently in The British Museum in London. Part of the The Charter reads as; " I am Cyrus. King of the world. When I entered Babylon; I did not let anyone to terrorize the land; I kept in view the needs of people and all its sanctuaries to promote their well-being; I put an end to their misfortune. The Great God has delivered all the lands into my hand; the lands that I have made to dwell in a peaceful habitation;"

Prior to his death, he founded a new capital city at Pasargad in Pars, and had established a government for his empire. He appointed a governor, known as Satrap, to represent him in each province. The administration, legislation, and cultural activities of each province was the responsibility of the Satraps.  "Xenophon narrates that Cyrus is reputed to have devised the first postal system. He further adds that Cyrus had first calculated the distance a horse could go in one day without being too exhausted, he then had a series of posting stations built distances of one-day apart, hence ensuring efficient flow of information between the King and provincial governors.  "Herodotus" confirming the same thing states that Cyrus had calculated that it would take three months to move his army from Susa to Sardis, a journey of 1700 miles.

+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه هفتم آذر ۱۳۹۰ساعت 17:31  توسط پارسا  |